Medicines: Pros and Cons

Medicines: Pros and Cons

Thanks to Medical research and Pharmaceutical companies, for their innovations, contributions to people’s improved health and prolonged life. Now a days medicines can be found everywhere, as they cure, slow, prevent disease, aiding us to lead healthier and happier lives. How ever, A drug may be helpful or harmful, there are also many of harmful drugs that people consume to help them feel good. Many people are enticed by the excitement that drugs seem to offer. Administering drugs for medicinal purposes is nothing new, if we can see from the drug literature which is dispensed with the drug, there is a list of possible side effects from drugs to the consumer could feel. You may be panicked of the listed side effects and at the same time, you may be discouraged from taking the complete medicine course as required and directed by your doctor. However, there are medicines those may not produce a many side effects while there can be others that may produce very perceptible side effects.

How do Drugs Work?

A drug may be produce useful or harmful effects. The effects of drugs can vary depending upon the kind of drug taken, dosage, how often it is used, how quickly it enters to the various parts of body, and what other drugs, or substances that are taken at the same time. Effects can also vary based on the differences in body size, shape, and etc.

Drugs are chemicals or substances that alter the way our bodies functions. When it administered in to body often (by swallowing, inhaling, injecting and any other route), drugs find their way into circulatory system and are distributed to various parts of the body, such as brain and etc. In the brain, drugs may either intensify or dull senses, alter the sense of alertness, and sometimes decrease physical pain.

Listed few side effects which we can experience when on prescription medication therapy.

Amphetamines:

Amphetamines are stimulants that accelerate functions in the brain and body. Amphetamine is a psychostimulant drug of the phenethylamine class that produces increased wakefulness and focus in association with decreased fatigue and appetite.

Effects and Risks:

  • Swallowed or snorted, these drugs hit users with a fast high, making them feel powerful, alert, and energized.
  • Uppers pump up heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure, and they can also cause sweating, shaking, headaches, sleeplessness, and blurred vision.
  • Prolonged use may cause hallucinations and intense paranoia.

Addictiveness: Amphetamines are psychologically addictive. Users who stop reported that they experience various mood problems such as aggression, anxiety, and intense cravings for the drugs.

Cough and Cold Medicines:

Several over-the-counter cough and cold medicines may contain the active ingredient Dextromethorphan. If taken in large quantities, these over-the-counter medicines can cause hallucinations, loss of motor control, and “out-of-body” sensations.

Effects and Risks:

Small doses of dextromethorphan will suppress coughing, in a larger doses it can cause fever, confusion, impaired judgment, blurred vision, dizziness, paranoia, excessive sweating, slurred speech, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, irregular heartbeat, high blood pressure, headache, lethargy, numbness of fingers and toes, redness of face, dry and itchy skin, seizures, brain damage, and even death.

Sometimes users mistakenly take cough syrups that contain other medications in addition to dextromethorphan. High doses of these medications can cause serious injury or death.
Depressants

A depressant, or central depressant, is a drug or endogenous compound that depresses the function or activity of a specific part of the brain. Depressants are widely used throughout the world as prescription medicines and as illicit substances. Depressants, such as tranquilizers and barbiturates, calm nerves and relax muscles.

Effects and Risks:

Depressants are used medicinally for therapeutic purposes including:

  • To reduce feelings of anxiety and panic.
  • To induce sleepiness and relieve insomnia.
  • To induce analgesia and relieve aches and pains.
  • To reduce convulsions/seizures in the treatment of epilepsy.
  • To cause muscle relaxation for those with muscle pain or spasms.

 They are also used recreationally for the following purposes:

  • To temporarily boost mood or induce euphoria.
  • To reduce social anxiety and improve sociability.
  • At larger doses depressants can cause confusion, slurred speech, lack of coordination, and tremors.
  • At Very large doses can cause a person to stop breathing and result in death.
  • Depressants and alcohol should never be mixed — this combination greatly increases the risk of overdose and death.

 Addictiveness: Depressants can cause both psychological and physical dependence.

Inhalants:

Inhalants are a broad range of drugs whose volatile vapors are taken in thru the nose and trachea. Inhalants can be classified by the intended function. Most inhalant drugs that are used non-medically are ingredients in household or industrial chemical products that are not intended to be concentrated and inhaled. A small number of recreational inhalant drugs are pharmaceutical products that are used illicitly.

Effects and Risks:

  • On long-time use inhalants get headaches, nosebleeds, and may suffer loss of hearing and sense of smell.
  • Inhalants are the most likely of abused substances to cause severe toxic reaction and even also cause death.
  • Inhalants can be very addictive. Teens who use inhalants can become psychologically dependent upon them to feel good, handle stress.

Ketamine:

Ketamine is a chiral compound and quick-acting anesthetic drug. Pharmacologically, ketamine is classified as an NMDA (N-methyl D-aspartate) receptor antagonist. It is used in both human (as a sedative) and veterinary medicine (as a tranquilizer). Its hydrochloride salt is available as Ketanest, Ketaset, and Ketalar.

Medical Use:

    • Pediatric anesthesia
    • Asthmatics or patients with chronic obstructive airway disease
    • As part of a cream, gel, or liquid for topical application for nerve pain.
    • In emergency medicine in entrapped patients suffering severe trauma
    • Emergency surgery in field conditions in war zones
    • To supplement spinal/epidural anaesthesia/analgesia utilizing low doses

 Effects and Risks:

  • Short term side effects of Ketamine are:
  • Increase in heart rate
  • Slurred speech
  • Confusion, disorientation
  • Out-of-body experience
  • Nausea
  • Sedation
  • Cardiovascular effects, including hypertension and tachycardia
  • Respiratory depression
  • Hypersalivation
  • Euphoria
  • Distortion or loss of sensory perceptions (common)
  • Open- and closed-eye visuals (common)
  • Dissociation of mind from body
  • Analgesia, numbness
  • Ataxia (loss of motor coordination)
  • Significant change in perception of time
  • Double-vision
  • On long term usage it may cause Neurological effects and Urinary tract effects.

 Methamphetamine:

Methamphetamine is a powerful central nervous system stimulant drug. Methamphetamine increases the release and blocks the reuptake of the neurotransmitter (or brain chemical).

Methamphetamine is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is also used to treat obesity after other diets or medications have been tried without successful weight loss.

Effects and Risks:

  • Methamphetamine users feel a euphoric rush, especially, if it is smoked or shot up. They can develop tolerance quickly — and will use more meth for longer periods of time, resulting in sleeplessness, paranoia, and hallucinations.
  • Methamphetamine users may sometimes have intense delusions such as believing that there are insects crawling under their skin.
  • Prolong use of Methamphetamine may result in violent, aggressive behavior, psychosis, and brain damage.

Addictiveness: Methamphetamine is highly addictive.

Tranquillisers:

Tranquilizers are central nervous system depressants, classified into two main categories: minor tranquilizers (anxiolytics) and major tranquilizers (neuroleptics), Tranquillisers act as sedatives to lower anxiety and as hypnotics to assist sleep. Many tranquillisers have both effects, often having a sedative effect at low doses and a hypnotic effect at high doses.

Minor tranquilizers are used in the treatment of anxiety, tension, panic attacks, and insomnia. Major tranquilizers specifically relieve the symptoms of mental illness, but are also used as sedatives before surgical and medical procedures.

At therapeutic doses, tranquilizers generally relieve anxiety and may in some people induce a loss of inhibition and a feeling of well-being. Many tranquilizers tend to induce sleep. As the dose of the tranquilizer is increased, so are the degree of sedation and the impairment of mental acuity and physical coordination.

Effects and Risks:

  • Many users report lethargy, drowsiness, and dizziness after taking tranquilizers.
  • Decreased motivation, irritability, nausea, headaches, skin rashes, Impaired sexual
  • functioning, menstrual irregularities, tremors, loss of appetite, or increased appetite, lethargy and over sedation, and vivid or disturbing dreams are all possible side effects of tranquilizer use.
  • With regular use, tranquilizers can create psychological and physical dependence.
    Effects on the Central Nervous System
  • Minor tranquilizers seem to have direct depressant effects on brain areas that regulate wakefulness and alertness, very similar in effect to alcohol and sedative barbiturates. They enhance the action of receptors that inhibit central nervous system stimulation, and conversely, inhibit the action of receptors that stimulate the nervous system.
  • Major tranquilizers primarily affect specific receptors in the brain that reduce psychotic thoughts, perceptions and agitation.
  • Abusive or improper use of Tranquilizers may result in unpleasant or dangerous side effects such as: Difficulty concentrating
  • Disconnected sensation
  • Depressed heartbeat
  • Depressed breathing
  • Excessive sleep and sleepiness
  • Mental confusion and memory loss

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